We can serve community schools to improve quality of education....
नेपालमा अक्षराङ्क मूल्याङ्कन पद्धति निरन्तर विद्यार्थि मूल्याङ्कन मार्फत २०६३ सालमा देशभर कक्षा १ मा सुरु भएको थियो । तर सबैको आँखा पर्ने एस. एल. सी. परीक्षामा भने पहिलो पटक २०७१ सालमा ९९ ओटा प्राविधिक विषयका (TSLC) मा सुरु भएको थियो । खास राम्रो तयारी गर्न नपाइ हतारमा लागु गरिएको उक्त अक्षराङ्क पद्धति २०७२।०८।२३ मा पाठ्यक्रम विकास तथा मूल्याङ्कन परिषदबाट कार्यविधि जारी गरी सबै खाले विषयहरुमा सुरु भएको हो । शिक्षा ऐनको आठौँ संसोधन २०७३।३।१५ मा संसदबाट पारित भएपछि विद्यालयको संरचनालाई परिवर्तन गरी कक्षा १० को परीक्षालाई SEE र कक्षा १२ को परीक्षालाई SLC भनिने ब्यवस्था राष्ट्रिय परीक्षा बोर्डबाट भएको छ ।
यस बर्ष २०७४ मा प्रकाशित भएको SEE को नतिजामा विद्यार्थिले प्राप्त गरेको प्राप्ताङ्क प्रतिशतलाई आधार बनाइ विषयगत रुपमा लेटर ग्रेड र सो ग्रेडको ग्रेड पोइन्ट दिइन ब्यवस्था सोही कार्यविधिले गरेको छ जुन निम्न अनुसार रहेको छः
माथिको चित्रबाट के स्पष्ट हुन्छ भने A+ वा grade point ४ आयो भने विद्यार्थिले कम्तिमा ९० प्रतिशत हासिल गरेको छ भन्ने स्पष्ट हुन्छ । तर हाम्रा अभिभावक, शिक्षक तथा सरोकारवालाहरुले के गर्न थाल्नुभयो भने ग्रेड पोइन्ट 4 लाइ १००% अंक मानी 4 × 25 = 100 को हिसावले विद्यार्थिले पाएको GPA (Grade Point Average) लाई गलत ब्याख्या र उपयोग गरेको पाइयो । बास्तविकता के हो भने grade point लाई प्रतिशतमा लैजान मिल्दैन । यो त non-convertible अंक हो । यसले विद्यार्थिले हाँसिल गरेको अंकको यथार्थ अवस्था थाहा पाउनै सकिँदैन । यस सम्बन्धि कुरालाई स्पष्ट पार्न तलका उदाहरणहरु हेरौः
मानौ दुइओटा विद्यार्थिहरु ABC र XYZ छन् । उनीहरुको प्राप्ताङ्क निम्नअनुसार हुँदा ग्रेडहरु छ र उसको प्राप्ताङ्क निम्नअनुसर रहेका छन्:
यो नतिजा अनुसार ९७.७५ प्रतिशत ल्याउने विद्यार्थिको ग्रेड पोइन्ट ३.९५ मात्र आयो जवकी यस्तो अंक ल्याउने विद्यार्थि पाउनै दुर्लभ छ ।
फेरी अर्को उदाहरण हेरौः
यो विद्यार्थिले केवल ९०% अंक प्राप्त गरेका छन् र यीनको GPA 4 छ ।
अव तुलना गरौः
हाम्रा अभिभावक, शिक्षक र सरोकारवाला साथै पत्रकारज्यूहरु के गर्न भएको छ हेरौः
ABC विद्यार्थिको प्राप्ताङ्क = ३.९५ × २५ = ९८.७५
XYZ विद्यार्थिको प्राप्ताङ्क = ४ × २५ = १००
माथीका उदाहरणहरुबाट के प्रष्ट हुन्छ भने GPA लाई प्रतिशतमा बदल्नु सर्वथा गलत हो । त्यसरी बुझ्नु हुँदैन ।
३.६–४.० लाई A+ भनी ब्याख्या र प्रचारबाजी गर्नु त कुनै आधार नभएको कुरा हो । तर GPA ४.०० नै आयो भने त्यो ९० प्रतिशत अंक वा सो भन्दा माथी नै हो र GPA लाई समग्र ग्रेड A+ सरह नै हो तर यसरी ब्याख्या गर्नु जरुरी भने छैन । GPA नै काफि हो र यथार्थ हो । पत्रपत्रीका र अनलाईन पत्रिकाहरुमा यस्तो कुराहरु राखी ब्याख्या गरिएको पाइएको छ । यसो गर्न मिल्दैन । कसैले गर्नु भएको छ भने सुधार गर्नुहोला भन्ने मेरो अनुरोध छ ।
यसरी नआएको ग्रेड पोइन्टको प्रचार गरी खादा ओडाउँदा पछाडी ती हाम्रा विद्यार्थिहरु जान्ने र बुझ्ने भएपछि उनीहरुमा लाज हुन पनि सक्दछ । यसो हुनुमा राष्ट्रिय परीक्षा बोर्डको गतसालको ब्याख्या पनि दोसी छ । परीक्षा बोर्डले यो गल्ति सच्याइसकेको छ तर आम मानिसहरुमा यो धारणा कायमै छ ।
सही कुरा के हो त?
1. ग्रेड विषयगत हुन्छ । विषयगत नै ब्याख्या गरिनु पर्दछ ।
2. GPA लाई कुनै अक्षराङ्कमा ब्याख्या गरिनु हुँदैन । GPA लाई प्रतिशतमा पनि बदल्न मिल्दैन ।
3. GPA ४.०० आएमात्र A+ सुनिस्चित हुन्छ नत्र हुँदैन । तर पनि यसरी अक्षराङ्कमा भन्न मिल्दैन ।
४. GPA विदेशतिर अध्ययन गर्न आवश्यक पर्छ । त्यसैले यसको पनि महत्व छ ।
५. GPA को आधारमा यो ग्रेड आयो नभनौ, भन्न छोडौ । यो सही छैन ।
(कृपया यो लेख पढेर कतै गल्ति पाउनु भएमा कमेन्ट पनि गर्नुहोला । मैल लेख दोहोर्याएर पढ्ने चेस्टा गरेको छैन किनकी यो मेरो विचार हो । तपाइलाई सेयर गर्न मन लागेमा सेयर पनि गर्न सक्नुहुनेछ ।)
२०७४ बैशाख ३१ गते
तपाइको नाम लेखेपछि पासवर्डमा tsc लेखी परीक्षा दिन सक्नुहुनेछ ।
परीक्षा दिन >> यहाँ क्लिक गर्नुहोस् ।
अनुवाद तथा संकलनः श्याम प्रसाद आचार्य
हिन्दुबाद हिन्दु धर्म मात्र नभई यो जीवन पद्धति हो भन्ने भनाइ आजभोली धेरै छलफलमा आएको छ । त्यसैले हिन्दुबाद सबै धर्मावलम्बीहरुको साझा दर्शन हो । श्रीमद्भागवत गीता हिन्दूहरूको धर्मग्रन्थका आलावा हिन्दुबादको महाकाव्य हो भनी स्वीकार्न सकिन्छ । यसमा भगवान कृष्णले अर्जुनसँग र अन्य व्यक्तिहरू सँगको सम्बादका रूपमा कवितात्मक प्रस्तुती गरिएको छ । यसमा जीवन दर्शन दिइएको छ । सत्य, जन्तु, जगत, जन्म,
Why children are weak in studies?
(This is the experience of 10 years' girl, Anuska Acharya, who studies in grade 4. Her father asked to explore herself why she as well as her friends are not devoted in study and not able to achieve better skill in their study. Her answer is given below, write up is as she wrote, show that there are some grammatical mistakes too.)
This paper is presented in Korean Institute of Curriculum and Evaluation
8th September, 2016
Presenter: Shyam Prasad Acharya
Ministry of Education, Education Review Office
Venue: KICE seminar hall
Abstract: Improving Quality of Education through International Education Development Cooperation: Issues and Future Directions of Learning Outcome Assessment in Nepal
The main aim of this presentation is to review International Development Cooperation in the education sector in Nepal, particularly focusing on learning assessment of students. It also identifies issues and suggests for the future direction of learning outcomes assessment in Nepal, and the discussions about the need of building international as well as regional network for learning outcomes assessment. It begins with the brief review of Official Development Assistance (ODA) in education in Nepal including students' assessment. It then overviews the practice of learning outcomes assessment and discusses the issues and future direction of learning outcomes assessment.
Nepal has centralized education management system. Policy are formulated at Ministry level. Program, curriculum, evaluation, staff development and their implementation arrangements are set at department level where as implementation of all policy and programs are done at local level, namely at school level and district level. School education has some major characteristics: General education or technical and vocational education streams, school level is divided into two levels - basic grade 1-8 and secondary grade 1-12; free school education up to grade 12; two different types of schools in practice namely community (public) and institutional (private) at present. Performance of private schools is better than in public schools (ERO, 2015). Parents are more motivated to send their children in private schools. However, qualification and training of teacher is better in public schools. New constitution of Nepal 2015 has included the provision of free and compulsory basic education, and the government is preparing for implementing it. Along with the restructuring of state into federal form, this constitution also provisioned local government with various responsibility including governing and managing school level education.
Nepal has been receiving financial and technical assistance from development partners in various sectors since 1959 AD as Official Development Assistance (ODA). At the beginning, grant, loan and other supports were focused in project model. Particularly, in education, focusing on improving access to and quality and relevancy of education, program model was adopted during 2001-2008, which is also known as basket funding for educational program. Since 2009 for harmonizing the cooperation, improving the effectiveness of the funds and utilizing the funds in National interest, Sector Wide Approach (SWAP) has been adopted. School Sector Reform Plan (2009 – 2016) is one of the example of SWAP. In current School Sector Development Plan (SSDP) 2016-2023 a Joint Funding Approach is agreed to fund, implement and monitor (MOE, School Sector Development Plan (SSDP), 2016) the program in school sector. However, the declining trend of the contribution of external resources in education sector and the increasing commitment from the Government of Nepal to education, which also contributes for sustainable funding to the sector. The overall contribution of ODA in education sector is now reduced to 12%.
The Government of Korea has supported Nepal in various sectors through KOICA and other support mechanisms. In education sector, Government of Republic of Korea has been supporting some projects on technical and vocational education, supporting in transforming technology through volunteers and providing scholarship to Nepali student, but these supports are outside of the joint funding arrangement for school sector.
Regarding, students' learning outcomes assessment, the National Assessment of Student Achievement (NASA) initially carried out with the technical support of Finnish government together with some financially support by the Word Bank as well as other bilateral and multilateral organizations. UNESCO's roles, particularly, NEQMAP's supports on developing capacity on national assessment has been crucial for Nepal.
There are some issues and challenges in International Cooperation and Development support. Decreased trend of DPs assistant, conflict between National interest and DPs interest, high cost of reporting and management of funds and unavailability of fund according to commitment are major issues. Although Nepal have achieved indicators of access in Education, part of quality and relevancy is still unachieved. Making relevant curriculum and providing quality education is not satisfactory. Development partners' supports are to achieve the goal of quality education for all. There is a big amount non-budgetary and support from outside the government budget system from the various agencies, particularly through International non-government organizations (INGO) of which there is risk of spending the funds beyond the needy areas. Harmonizing such support and utilizing in targeted areas is also a challenge.
In Nepal, public examinations as well as classroom based assessments have been practiced to assess the students achievement. In order to provide feedback for the improvement of education system and policy National Assessment in Nepal begins formally since 1998 during Basic and Primary Education Project (BPEP). Some National Assessments in various Grades were conducted in Basic Education before 2011. However, comparing the score was not possible because of different modalities and use of classical test theory. In 2010, Education Review Office (ERO) was established for the regular monitoring of educational quality. One of the major functions of ERO is to conduct regularly the National Assessment of Student Achievement (NASA) in various grades of school education in a sample basis. In this study, Item Response Theory (IRT) is used which made it possible to compare results over the years. Even though, access in education have been improved, NASA results shows that quality of Education has not been improved.
Four National Assessments conducted since 2011 reveal that students are good in recall type of questions, however they are weak in applying learnt facts and skills in unfamiliar and noble situations, creative works and reasoning. NASA result show that learning achievement is in decreasing order (MOE 2013; ERO, 2014, ERO, 2015; ERO, 2016). The positive result revealed by this study is the narrowed difference in gender parity in achievement in grade 8 which is last grade of basic schooling and gender parity in achieved in the achievement in grade 3 and 5. However, several differences are pronounced by those four studies viz wide gap between rural and urban schools, Kathmandu valley and other regions, low Socio Economic Status (SES) family and high SES family children, community and private schools etc. Problematic situation uncovered by NASA is the lowest achievement of the students whose parents' profession is agriculture and are illiterate. So, major challenge for Nepal is to provide additional support to those poor economic family students and make availability of resources to use in school because they cannot afford those resources in their home. School bullying, unavailability of the text book in time, low school open days, low motivation of teachers, gender disparity in higher grades, etc are the other problems exposed by this research. To address those problems, availability of resources, commitment from teachers and policy makers, long-term road map of improving educational quality is necessary.
Up to 2015, NASA tests are norms based. Norms based NASA is useful to find the gap between various groups. However, this assessment could not plausibly show what students can do, and how well they can perform. So, from this year, ERO started standard based test with defined criterions and standards developed according to learning outcomes defined by curriculum. Pre-test of this assessment has already been carried out; however, technical expertise in analyzing and reporting the assessment results has not been developed adequately. Capacity development of Education Review Office as well as enhancing national capacity on assessment is necessary for conducting national assessment effectively. At the same time, the Ministry of Education should establish a mechanism for revising policies and programs based on assessment results so that there will a system of implementing assessment findings to improve education quality. Integrating various assessments like Early Grade Reading Assessment, Early Grade Mathematics Assessment, and NASA are still undone. We are working towards developing National Assessments at the level of international level with making more comparable test and exploring possibilities of participating in the International Assessment.
MOE. (2013). Where are We Now? National Assessment of Student Achievement 2011. Kathmandu: Ministry of Education.
MOE. (2016). School Sector Development Plan (SSDP). (pp. 123-125). Ministry of Education, Nepal.
MOF. (2016). Foreign aid 2014-15. Ministry of Finance, Nepal.
MOE. (2013). Where Were we now ? National Assessment of Student Achievement, grade 8 (Nepali, Mathematics, Social study), Ministry of Education, Kathmandu Nepal.
ERO. (2014). Where Were we now ? National Assessment of Student Achievement, grade 3 and 5 (Nepali, Mathematics and English), Education Review Office, Nepal.
ERO. (2015). National Assessment of Student Achievement, Grade 8 (Nepali, Mathematics and Science), Education Review Office, Sanothimi, Bhaktapur.
ERO. (2015). National Assessment of Student Achievement, Grade 3 and 5 (Nepali, Mathematics and Science), Education Review Office, Sanothimi, Bhaktapur.