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Education Today

"Committed to Excellence in Education"


We can serve community schools to improve quality of education....

This paper is presented in Korean Institute of Curriculum and Evaluation

Seoul, Korea

8th September, 2016

Presenter: Shyam Prasad Acharya 

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Ministry of Education, Education Review Office



Seminar presentation Shyam Prasad Acharya

Venue: KICE seminar hall


Abstract: Improving Quality of Education through International Education Development Cooperation: Issues and Future Directions of Learning Outcome Assessment in Nepal



The main aim of this presentation is to review International Development Cooperation in the education sector in Nepal, particularly focusing on learning assessment of students. It also identifies issues and suggests for the future direction of learning outcomes assessment in Nepal, and the discussions about the need of building international as well as regional network for learning outcomes assessment. It begins with the brief review of Official Development Assistance (ODA) in education in Nepal including students' assessment. It then overviews the practice of learning outcomes assessment and discusses the issues and future direction of learning outcomes assessment.


Education System in Nepal

Nepal has centralized education management system. Policy are formulated at Ministry level. Program, curriculum, evaluation, staff development and their implementation arrangements are set at department level where as implementation of all policy and programs are done at local level, namely at school level and district level. School education has some major characteristics: General education or technical and vocational education streams, school level is divided into two levels - basic grade 1-8 and secondary grade 1-12; free school education up to grade 12; two different types of schools in practice namely community (public) and institutional (private) at present. Performance of private schools is better than in public schools (ERO, 2015). Parents are more motivated to send their children in private schools. However, qualification and training of teacher is better in public schools. New constitution of Nepal 2015 has included the provision of free and compulsory basic education, and the government is preparing for implementing it. Along with the restructuring of state into federal form, this constitution also provisioned local government with various responsibility including governing and managing school level education.

International Development Cooperation in Nepal

Nepal has been receiving financial and technical assistance from development partners in various sectors since 1959 AD as Official Development Assistance (ODA). At the beginning, grant, loan and other supports were focused in project model. Particularly, in education, focusing on improving access to and quality and relevancy of education, program model was adopted during 2001-2008, which is also known as basket funding for educational program. Since 2009 for harmonizing the cooperation, improving the effectiveness of the funds and utilizing the funds in National interest, Sector Wide Approach (SWAP) has been adopted. School Sector Reform Plan (2009 – 2016) is one of the example of SWAP. In current School Sector Development Plan (SSDP) 2016-2023 a Joint Funding Approach is agreed to fund, implement and monitor (MOE, School Sector Development Plan (SSDP), 2016) the program in school sector. However, the declining trend of the contribution of external resources in education sector and the increasing commitment from the Government of Nepal to education, which  also contributes for sustainable funding to the sector. The overall contribution of ODA in education sector is now reduced to 12%. 

The Government of Korea has supported Nepal in various sectors through KOICA and other support mechanisms.  In education sector, Government of Republic of Korea has been supporting some projects on technical and vocational education, supporting in transforming technology through volunteers and providing scholarship to Nepali student, but these supports are outside of the joint funding arrangement for school sector.

Regarding, students' learning outcomes assessment, the National Assessment of Student Achievement (NASA) initially carried out with the technical support of Finnish government together with some financially support by the Word Bank as well as other bilateral and multilateral organizations. UNESCO's roles, particularly, NEQMAP's supports on developing capacity on national assessment has been crucial for Nepal. 

There are some issues and challenges in International Cooperation and Development support. Decreased trend of DPs assistant, conflict between National interest and DPs interest, high cost of reporting and management of funds and unavailability of fund according to commitment are major issues. Although Nepal have achieved indicators of access in Education, part of quality and relevancy is still unachieved. Making relevant curriculum and providing quality education is not satisfactory. Development partners' supports are to achieve the goal of quality education for all. There is a big amount non-budgetary and support from outside the government budget system from the various agencies, particularly through International non-government organizations (INGO) of which there is risk of spending the funds beyond the needy areas. Harmonizing such support and utilizing in targeted areas is also a challenge.

National Assessment in Nepal: status, issues and future direction

In Nepal, public examinations as well as classroom based assessments have been practiced to assess the students achievement. In order to provide feedback for the improvement of education system and policy National Assessment in Nepal begins formally since 1998 during Basic and Primary Education Project (BPEP). Some National Assessments in various Grades were conducted in Basic Education before 2011. However, comparing the score was not possible because of different modalities and use of classical test theory. In 2010, Education Review Office (ERO) was established for the regular monitoring of educational quality. One of the major functions of ERO is to conduct regularly the National Assessment of Student Achievement (NASA) in various grades of school education in a sample basis.  In this study, Item Response Theory (IRT) is used which made it possible to compare results over the years. Even though, access in education have been improved, NASA results shows that quality of Education has not been improved.

Four National Assessments conducted since 2011 reveal that students are good in recall type of questions, however they are weak in applying learnt facts and skills in unfamiliar and noble situations, creative works and reasoning. NASA result show that learning achievement is in decreasing order (MOE 2013; ERO, 2014, ERO, 2015; ERO, 2016). The positive result revealed by this study is the narrowed difference in gender parity in achievement in grade 8 which is last grade of basic schooling and gender parity in achieved in the achievement in grade 3 and 5. However, several  differences are pronounced by those four studies viz wide gap between rural and urban schools, Kathmandu valley and other regions, low Socio Economic Status (SES) family and high SES family children, community and private schools etc. Problematic situation uncovered by NASA is the lowest achievement of the students whose parents' profession is agriculture and are illiterate. So, major challenge for Nepal is to provide additional support to those poor economic family students and make availability of resources to use in school because they cannot afford those resources in their home. School bullying, unavailability of the text book in time, low school open days, low motivation of teachers, gender disparity in higher grades, etc are the other problems exposed by this research. To address those problems, availability of resources, commitment from teachers and policy makers, long-term road map of improving educational quality is necessary.

Up to 2015, NASA tests are norms based. Norms based NASA is useful to find the gap between various groups. However, this assessment could not plausibly show what students can do, and how well they can perform. So, from this year, ERO started standard based test with defined criterions and standards developed according to learning outcomes defined by curriculum. Pre-test of this assessment has already been carried out; however, technical expertise in analyzing and reporting the assessment results has not been developed adequately. Capacity development of Education Review Office as well as enhancing national capacity on assessment is necessary for conducting national assessment effectively. At the same time, the Ministry of Education should establish a mechanism for revising policies and programs based on assessment results so that there will a system of implementing assessment findings to improve education quality. Integrating various assessments like Early Grade Reading Assessment, Early Grade Mathematics Assessment, and NASA are still undone. We are working towards developing National Assessments at the level of international level with making more comparable test and exploring possibilities of participating in the International Assessment.




               MOE. (2013). Where are We Now? National Assessment of Student Achievement 2011. Kathmandu: Ministry of Education.

               MOE. (2016). School Sector Development Plan (SSDP). (pp. 123-125). Ministry of Education, Nepal.

               MOF. (2016). Foreign aid 2014-15. Ministry of Finance, Nepal.

MOE. (2013). Where Were we now ? National Assessment of Student Achievement, grade 8 (Nepali, Mathematics, Social study), Ministry of Education, Kathmandu Nepal.

ERO. (2014). Where Were we now ? National Assessment of Student Achievement, grade 3 and 5 (Nepali, Mathematics and English), Education Review Office, Nepal.

ERO. (2015). National Assessment of Student Achievement, Grade 8 (Nepali, Mathematics and Science), Education Review Office, Sanothimi, Bhaktapur.

ERO. (2015). National Assessment of Student Achievement, Grade 3 and 5 (Nepali, Mathematics and Science), Education Review Office, Sanothimi, Bhaktapur.

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